A black hole is a place or region in space where gravity pulls so much that even light can’t get out. But the question is why do they have this much gravity?
To understand this first we need to know how black holes form,-
Scientists suspected that this was a case of two dead stars falling into a catastrophic embrace. Orbiting each other, they moved ever closer, gradually gaining speed. At the end of the line, they began tearing each other apart, until they finally merged.
NASA scientists simulated the final 35 thousandths of a second, when a black hole forms.
This isn’t the only theory that we got, Gravitational Collapse [Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the Centre of gravity.] is another theory behind black holes creation. Even gravitational collapse can create Neutron stars as well.
One can also consider the possibility that there might be a black hole with masses much less than that of the sun. Such black holes could not be formed by gravitational collapse, the practical possibilities of such low mass black holes that this kind of black holes can form in the high temperatures and pressures of the very early universe. So does it mean that there are different types of black holes; yes.
Four types of black holes are there. 1) Stellar 2) intermediate 3) supermassive and 4) miniature.
You should know that Supermassive black holes are millions or even billions of times as massive as the sun, but are about the same size in diameter.
Now, you may have a question that if Black Holes has this much gravity that lights can’t even get out, then how do we know that black holes are black?
A black hole cannot be seen because strong gravity pulls all of the light into the middle of the black hole. Scientists can’t directly observe black holes with telescopes that detect x-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
But scientists can see how the strong gravity affects the stars and gas around the black hole. We can, infer the presence of black holes and study them by detecting their effect on other matter nearby.
When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made. This kind of light can not be seen with human eyes. Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see high-energy light.
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Is Earth safe from Black holes?
Yes, of course! Black holes do not go around in space eating stars, moons, and planets. No black hole is close enough to the solar system for Earth to do that, the nearest Black Hole from Earth is about 25,000 to 27,000 light-years.
Few important things about Black Holes,-
Event Horizon –
The outer limits of a black hole, call the event horizon. You can think as a boundary of Black holes. This means a black hole’s event horizon is essentially the point from which nothing can return.
A singularity means a point where some property is infinite, in other words, this is the center of a black hole by the theory of General Relativity. Also known as Gravitational Singularity.